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Navegation in Shallow Waters

Autoren: Captain Eduardo Gilardoni and Captain Juan Presedo

maniobra de buques


Witherby Seamanship International

A Division of Witherby Publishing Group Ltd 4 Dunlop Square, Livingston, Edinburgh, EH54 8SB, Scotland, UK Tel No: +44(0)1506 463 227 – Fax No: +44(0)1506 468 999 Email: info@witherbys.com – Web: www.witherbyseamanship.com First Edition 2016 ISBN: 978-1-85609-667-6 © Witherby Publishing Group Ltd 2016 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Notice of Terms of Use All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publishers. While the advice given in this book (Navigation in Shallow Waters) has been developed using the best information currently available, it is intended purely as guidance to be used at the user’s own risk. Witherby Publishing Group accepts no responsibility for the accuracy of any information or advice given in the document or any omission from the document or for any consequence whatsoever resulting directly or indirectly from compliance with or adoption of guidance contained in the document even if caused by failure to exercise reasonable care. This publication has been prepared to deal with the subject of Navigation in Shallow Waters. This should not, however, be taken to mean that this publication deals comprehensively with all of the issues that will need to be addressed or even, where a particular issue is addressed, that this publication sets out the only definitive view for all situations. Printed and bound in Great Britain by Bell & Bain Ltd, Glasgow

Published in 2016 by Witherby Publishing Group Ltd
4 Dunlop Square, Livingston Edinburgh, EH54 8SB Scotland, UK
Tel No: +44(0)1506 463 227
Fax No: +44(0)1506 468 999
Email: info@witherbys.com
Web: www.witherbys.com


This publication, by Captain Eduardo Gilardoni and Captain Juan Presedo, covers many aspects of ship handling in shallow waters. It contains theoretical and practical information for ships navigating in open water and in confined channels. The publication relates specifically to vessels in shallow waters because feedback from full-size vessels and ship models has consistently shown that ship performance is much less efficient in shallow water than in deep water. It is, in effect, a risk analysis that examines possibilities of ship accidents and discusses methods of prevention.
I am pleased to see numerous references in this publication to my work on squat and interaction, and particularly as it is applied to the practical aspects of navigation and ship handling. The authors aimed to cover a gap in the existing texts relating to ship handling in shallow waters and the differences that Masters may experience when compared with deep water conditions. They have certainly succeeded in doing so.
I strongly recommend this publication for those ashore and on board ship and as an introduction for maritime students. The text, methods, diagrams and equations are easy to follow and understand.
Finally, if you are a student, good luck in your maritime studies. If you are either sea going or shore based, best wishes for continued success in your chosen career. I hope that this book will be informative and of value to you.

Dr C B Barrass MSc FRINA
International Maritime Consultant

About the autors

Capt Eduardo O Gilardoni

Capt Eduardo O Gilardoni is a Master Mariner with more than 30 years’ seagoing experience. He holds a BSc in marine transportation and has extensive experience in marine surveying, ship handling, shipping operations and operations in shallow waters.
He sailed as Master on oil tankers, salvage tugs and supply vessels. He took part in numerous salvage, sea towing, supply and rescue operations, predominantly in the South Atlantic Ocean. He then moved ashore and worked for 15 years as an Operations Manager for major oil companies, SBM/CBM terminals and for deep sea towing and supply companies.
Capt Gilardoni is also a recognised expert and author on navigation in restricted waters and accident investigation. He lectures on ship handling and naval architecture at the Argentine National Maritime Academy ‘Manuel Belgrano’ and is a member of the examination board for Master Mariners, River Plate and Parana Pilots’ exams. He is an LR certified lead auditor for ISM/ISO and ISPS.
All the chapters in this book, with the exception of the Chapter 17, are written by Capt Gilardoni.

Capt Juan P Presedo

Capt Juan P Presedo is a Master Mariner and holds an MBA in Oil and Gas (Robert Gordon University) and a BSc in Marine Transportation. He graduated as the top-ranked midshipman from the Argentine National Maritime Academy and subsequently served for 10 years at sea, predominantly on board LNG carriers. He has experience as a Marine Operations Superintendent, working with a major LNG operator in London, and as a Marine Assurance Specialist working for an oil major vetting team. He is a specialist in LNG marine operations and has taken part in LNG carrier new building projects and dry docks. He has planned and supervised LNG ship to ship transfers underway, at anchor and alongside, and has taken part in the commissioning of LNG terminals. He has also trained crews and shore staff for LNG operations for special projects.
Capt Presedo is an LR certified ISO 9001/14001/18001 lead auditor, with experience in accident investigation, ISM/ISO/ISPS/navigation audits and ship to shore/ship to ship compatibility studies. He is a fellow of the Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers, an associated fellow of the Nautical Institute and has written frequently for shipping magazines and specialised nautical publications.
His contribution to this work is Chapter 17, Commercial and Legal Considerations for Masters in Charge of Vessels Moving in Restricted Waters.


Foreword v

About the Authors vii

Author’s Note ix

Introduction xi

Abbreviations xvii

Chapter 1 – Shallow Waters 1

Chapter 2 – Directional Stability 7

Chapter 3 – A Ship Navigating in a Channel 15

Chapter 4 – Squat 67

Chapter 5 – Effect of Current, Tide and Wind 87

Chapter 6 – The Ship Describing a Curved Path 105

Chapter 7 – Thrusters 123

Chapter 8 – Differences in Turning Moments for Different Ship Types 139

Chapter 9 – Physical Position of the Ship Handler 143

Chapter 10 – Factors Involved in Stopping a Moving Ship 151

Chapter 11 – Use of the Anchor as a Ship Handling Tool 167

Chapter 12 – Emergency Procedures in Ships 175

Chapter 13 – Embarking and Disembarking Pilots 179

Chapter 14 – Working Harbour Tugs 185

Chapter 15 – Rudders and Special Propellers 225

Chapter 16 – Twin Screw Ships 237

Chapter 17 – Commercial and Legal Considerations for Masters in Charge of Vessels Moving in Restricted Waters 249

Appendix A 263

Appendix B 271

Reflections of an Experienced Ship Pilot 277

Bibliography 281